Helping myself 

Wow! Sometimes you do something only in the spirit of helping someone, and it totally comes back to bite you in your derrière. You don’t have to do this thing, you are under no obligation to do it. But for some reason you feel someone is asking for your help without using the exact words, so you actually try to help. My advice was actually to read “The Power of Now” by Eckhart Tolle. Also it was about the effects of L-Dopa when people first start taking it for early onset Parkinson’s disease. How that advice could be taken wrongly and twisted to make me feel like I’d done something wrong is quite puzzling and quite beyond me. 

Do I stop helping people? If someone reaches out to me either in words or actions, do I just ignore them to avoid the backlash? Yes. For a bit. Until I understand how trying to help someone is wrong. I’m going to stop. For self preservation. For my own peace of mind and for the peace in my life. I’m going to put myself first. And not go out on a limb to help anyone else. 

I have always been helpful and selfless. But this incident is teaching me how to be more selfish and less selfless, so that I cannot be turned into the scapegoat into which I have frequently been turned. My entire life. I think I needed that lesson. 

Overcoming the “8 Reasons Why People Don’t Get Treatment for Mental Illness” by Dr. David Susman. 

Pretty great article for anyone struggling to accept they have a mental illness. So many reasons not to accept that we have these wretched illnesses. Dr. Susman offers alternative ways of looking at things, more helpful and constructive ways. Would be a great read for relatives of those struggling with mental illness as well.

Me, after my first depression, at which point I had no idea what the hell happened to me, but after that, I realized and accepted that I suffered from a mental illness. My first manic phase when I was Alice in Wonderland, and what a wonderland it was, well it was quite difficult to disavow my illness. After that first manic phase, I of course had to accept that I had bipolar 1. And though I’ve lost my baby brother to this illness, 31 years after my diagnosis, I’m still here.

As per the author’s request, I am removing the text of the article here, please just click on the link to read it 🙂

http://davidsusman.com/2017/06/01/overcoming-the-8-reasons-why-people-dont-get-treatment-for-mental-illness/?utm_content=buffer575a8&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

 

The Links Between Allergies and Anxiety

The reason I did a search on allergies and anxiety is that recently I went on a family vacation to Lake George NY.  While I was there, my Ohio river valley allergies absolutely vanished! And lo and behold so did the massive amounts of anxiety I had been experiencing! Now I admit, my son was with us on this vacation, so part of the reason my anxiety disappeared was that I knew he was with me and safe and sound. But I feel it was more than that, I thought perhaps my allergies were making me anxious. Allergies happen because our immune system reacts against something otherwise benign like pollen. If our immune system didn’t think pollen or mold or other environmental substances  were pathogens and if our immune system didn’t mount a full on attack against these things, we would not have allergies! Simple. 

Since I also knew the immune system is implicated in the development and perpetuation of mental illness, well it only made sense that allergies and anxiety may well be related! 

After I came back home to Louisville, my allergies returned with a vengeance and so did my anxiety! 

So I did a search about it and found many publications relating the two. One such article is below. I’ve bolded what was most important to me. 

I have also made an appointment with my allergist, I intend to get injections of my allergens in minute doses in an attempt to rid my self of these annoying and perhaps anxiety producing allergies. 

I will report back on my anxiety levels when I have completed the injections. 

http://www.ei-resource.org/articles/mental-and-emotional-problem-articles/the-links-between-allergies-and-anxiety/
The Links Between Allergies and Anxiety
Last Updated on Monday, 09 May 2016 02:04

by Ryan Rivera

October 2011
Beyond starting with the letter “A,” most people do not equate allergies with anxiety when looking at the causes of both disorders. Allergies are an environmental health problem, caused by an immune system that reacts poorly to the environment. Anxiety is a mental health problem, caused by inadequate coping strategies, stress, and genetics. But these two disorders have a fairly strong link, both directly and indirectly, and those that suffer from both may need to address each of those issues if they hope to successfully treat it.
Indirect Ways That Allergies Contribute to Anxiety
Many of the ways that allergies affect anxiety are indirect – meaning that the allergies are not physically causing the anxiety, but are contributing to it considerably. These include:
Fear of Allergic Reaction – Those that experience severe allergic reactions to things like peanut butter or bee stings may experience stress and anxiety every day, concerned over whether or not they’ll be able to stay safe in the environment. Life threatening allergies can be a frightening thing, and if you are already suffering from any mild anxiety, that fear can easily make your anxiety much worse.
Sleep Problems – When your allergies keep you awake at night, getting a full night’s sleep can be difficult. Unfortunately, experiencing the symptoms of anxiety is very common when you are struggling to get a full night’s rest. Over time this can become a vicious cycle, since anxiety can then cause sleep issues, and sleep issues can cause your allergies to worsen.

Oversensitivity to Body Changes – While panic attacks are a mental health problem, they are often triggered by concerns over physical health. Those that suffer from panic attacks become oversensitive to their own body’s physical reactions, causing them to experience panic. When you have allergies, you experience physical symptoms often, and those that are prone to panic attacks may easily respond negatively to those changes.

Even indirectly, it’s clear that allergies and anxiety are linked. Research has also found that anxiety itself can have a direct effect on allergies.

How Anxiety May Affect Allergies
Research at Ohio State University has shown that anxiety is also a factor in experiencing allergy symptoms. Several studies have shown that even a small amount of stress can not only increase the intensity of an allergy attack, but also cause the allergy attack itself to last longer and fade less quickly.
The reason for this is that stress and anxiety can affect the status of your immune system. Since allergies themselves are already caused by an inadequate immune system response, the additional stress on your immune system only makes it work less efficiently, resulting in more serious allergy symptoms than if you did not have stress.
How Allergies May Affect Anxiety
The physical effects are not necessarily one sided either. While you already read the ways that allergies can indirectly affect anxiety symptoms, early research is showing that allergies themselves may actually trigger an increase in anxiety.
Research in the British Journal of Dermatology found that patients that suffered from skin allergies experienced greater levels of anxiety. Studies have also shown that a compromised immune system can cause physical stress, and research has indicated in the past that experiencing physical anxiety symptoms may increase the likelihood of experiencing stress and worry – both of which are mental health symptoms, rather than physical symptoms.
While research in both of these areas is fairly new and still subjected to intense medical scrutiny, there is early evidence that anxiety can cause allergies to worsen, and vice versa.
What Does This Mean For Future Research and Treatment?
The next steps in research are going to need to focus on direct causes – looking at how the immune system interacts with anxiety and vice versa in order to discover where or what the direct link is that causes the two diseases to essentially feed off each other, assuming such a link exists.
Nevertheless, the early evidence does indicate that there is a medical link between both disorders, and beyond that there are several indirect links that cause anxiety to fuel allergies and vice versa, so that in the event that research finds them to be independent, each can still exacerbate the symptoms of the other, causing those that experience both to live with the vicious cycle.

One thing is clear, however. For those that experience both anxiety and allergies, treating only one may not be adequate enough to reduce the symptoms. Allergy treatments are going to be less effective for those whose symptoms are exacerbated by anxiety, and anxiety treatments are going to struggle to work if the individual is simultaneously dealing with the physical and mental effects of allergies. Both need to be addressed if one is to be free of either, which means that research needs to continue to discover the links so that each can be treated successfully.

Mindfulness and meditation dampen down inflammation genes

Wow! Inflammation is reduced, as seen by a reduction in NFKB levels. NFKB is a transcription factor that is involved in the production of pro inflammatory cytokines. This then drives inflammation. While inflammation is good to fight off infection or repair injuries, it is horrible when it becomes chronic, in which case it can cause autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, etc. Inflammation is also involved in psychiatric illnesses. 

So if mindfulness and meditation decrease inflammation, they will obviously have a healing effect on the body and mind. 

Wow! Decreasing inflammation is why mindfulness and meditation are so helpful! Of course more studies are needed and will be done to make this official. 

Yoga anyone? 

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2137595-mindfulness-and-meditation-dampen-down-inflammation-genes/
Hush those genes
By Jo Marchant
Meditation and tai chi don’t just calm the mind – they seem to affect our DNA too. There’s evidence that such “mind-body practices” dampen the activity of genes associated with inflammation – essentially reversing molecular damage caused by stress.
Mind-body practices such as mindfulness meditation are widely claimed to protect against stress-related diseases from arthritis to dementia. But although there’s plenty of evidence that they can relieve stress, the scientific case for physical health benefits has not yet been proven.
Recent advances mean it’s now easier to study patterns of gene activity inside cells, and there has been growing interest in using this approach to investigate how nurturing inner peace might influence the immune system and disease risk.

Ivana Buric, a psychologist at the Coventry University’s Brain, Belief and Behaviour lab, and her colleagues have now conducted the first systematic review of such studies. The team analysed 18 trials including 846 participants, ranging from a 2005 study of Qigong to a 2014 trial that tested whether tai chi influenced gene activity in people with insomnia.

Although the quality of studies was mixed and the results were complex, Buric says an overall pattern emerged. Genes related to inflammation became less active in people practicing mind-body interventions. Genes controlled by a key protein that acts as an inflammation “on-switch” – called NF-ĸB – seem to be particularly affected.
Stress busting
Inflammation is the body’s first line of defence against infection and injury, but it can damage the body if switched on long term. It is thought to be an important way in which psychological stress can increase a person’s risk of developing disease. Chronic inflammation is associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, autoimmune conditions such as asthma and arthritis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease and some types of cancer.

But the results of the analysis suggest mind-body interventions might help reduce the risk for inflammation-related disorders, says Buric. “And not just psychological ones, but even the physical ones like asthma or arthritis.”
Steve Cole, a genomics researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles, who worked on several of the studies included in the analysis, describes Buric’s conclusions as “spot on”. But he says rigorous clinical trials are still needed to show whether the changes in gene expression really do result in improved physical health.
There’s also a need for more studies comparing the effects of mind-body therapies with other lifestyle interventions, such as diet or exercise.
So far, the results suggest that different mind-body interventions may well all be working in a similar way. If your main purpose is to reduce inflammation to improve health, says Buric, “it seems it really doesn’t matter which one you choose”.

Not Just a State of Mind: Scientists Locate the Physical Source of Depression in the Brain

So the area of the brain involved in reward is under active, and the area that of the brain that is involved in non reward and punishment is overactive. Therefore the symptoms is depression 😪 Didn’t all of us people with mood disorders already know this? That depression is a real disease with real physical reasons! Well here’s the proof!

https://futurism.com/not-just-a-state-of-mind-scientists-locate-the-physical-source-of-depression-in-the-brain/IN BRIEF

Major depressive disorder affects approximately 14.8 million American adults, or about 6.7 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older, in a given year.
Researchers have found that feelings of loss and low self-esteem are directly linked to two sides the OFC — the medial OFC and the lateral OFC.

ONE IN TEN

Depression is a mental illness many people still dismiss as a matter of mindset. An international team of researchers from UK’s University of Warwick and Fudan University in China may just have proven that depression is more than just that – and pinned down where it originates in the brain.
“More than one in ten people in their life time suffer from depression, a disease which is so common in modern society and we can even find the remains of Prozac (a common drug used to treat depression) in the tap water in London,” explains Jianfeng Feng, a member of the research team and professor at both Warwick and Fudan.
According to their research published in the neurology journal Brain, depression results from connection pattern changes in a key area of the brain called the orbifrontal cortex (OFC). The researchers used a high-precision MRI to scan the brains of more than 900 people, of which 421 were patients with major depressive disorder. They found that feelings of loss and low self-esteem are directly linked to two sides the OFC — the medial OFC and the lateral OFC.

UNDERSTANDING DEPRESSION

The medial OFC, which fires up when we receive rewards, showed reduced functional connectivity in depression. This explains why people with depression feel a sense of loss, disappointment, and low self-esteem. Furthermore, this also leads to weaker memory system functional connectivity in the hippocampus (the brain’s memory center).
The lateral OFC, on the other hand, exhibited stronger functional connectivity in persons with depression. This sector of the OFC is involved in non-reward and punishing events. The lateral OFC displayed strong connections with the precuneus (related with the sense of self) and the angular gyrus (responsible for memory retrieval and attention), making it difficult for depressed persons to feel good about themselves due to easy recall of negative experiences.
This study could allow us to dramatically improve the lives of millions around the world, and could lead to treatment better than the current hit-and-miss approach.
This is a fascinating reminder to us. As we develop better artificial intelligence (AI) technology, it’s worth remembering that we have yet to fully understand how our own brains work.
References: ScienceAlert – Latest, Brain, Warwick University

AUTHOR
Dom Galeon October 20, 2016

EDITOR

Sarah Marquart

@sagaofsarah

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Brain’s immune cells linked to Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, schizophrenia (!!!)

This is incredible! Microglia, which are the immune cells that are in the brain, actually over express (meaning they make more of the proteins that the genes code for than normal cells) genes that are involved in the development of Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and depression !!! Why would immune cells over express genes involved in neurodegenerative and mental illnesses? How would this lead to developing these diseases? Wouldn’t neurons have to over express these genes?

Anyway, this is fascinating, and more pieces of the puzzle ought to be forthcoming and these will give us a better picture of whats happening at the molecular level in the development of these illnesses. 

I have bolder some of the seminal information in this article. Feel free to read the whole thing. 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170531132645.htmMay 31, 2017

Source: Salk Institute

Summary: Scientists conducted a vast microglia survey, revealing links to neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric illnesses.

Salk and UC San Diego scientists conducted a vast survey of microglia (pictured here), revealing links to neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric illnesses.

Scientists have, for the first time, characterized the molecular markers that make the brain’s front lines of immune defense — cells called microglia — unique. In the process, they discovered further evidence that microglia may play roles in a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric illnesses, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases as well as schizophrenia, autism and depression.

“Microglia are the immune cells of the brain, but how they function in the human brain is not well understood,” says Rusty Gage, professor in Salk’s Laboratory of Genetics, the Vi and John Adler Chair for Research on Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disease, and a senior author of the new work. “Our work not only provides links to diseases but offers a jumping off point to better understand the basic biology of these cells.”

Genes that have previously been linked to neurological diseases are turned on at higher levels in microglia compared to other brain cells, the team reported in Science on May 25, 2017. While the link between microglia and a number of disorders has been explored in the past, the new study offers a molecular basis for this connection.
“These studies represent the first systematic effort to molecularly decode microglia,” says Christopher Glass, a Professor of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Professor of Medicine at University of California San Diego, also senior author of the paper. “Our findings provide the foundations for understanding the underlying mechanisms that determine beneficial or pathological functions of these cells.”
Microglia are a type of macrophage, white blood cells found throughout the body that can destroy pathogens or other foreign materials. They’re known to be highly responsive to their surroundings and respond to changes in the brain by releasing pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory signals. They also prune back the connections between neurons when cells are damaged or diseased. But microglia are notoriously hard to study. They can’t be easily grown in a culture dish and quickly die outside of a living brain.
Nicole Coufal, a pediatric critical care doctor at UC San Diego, who also works in the Gage lab at Salk, wanted to make microglia from stem cells. But she realized there wasn’t any way to identify whether the resulting cells were truly microglia.

“There was not a unique marker that differentiated microglia from circulating macrophages in the rest of the body,” she says.
David Gosselin and Dylan Skola in the Glass lab, together with Coufal and their collaborators, set out to characterize the molecular characteristics of microglia. They worked with neurosurgeons at UC San Diego to collect brain tissue from 19 patients, all of who were having brain surgery for epilepsy, a brain tumor or a stroke. They isolated microglia from areas of tissue that were unaffected by disease, as well as from mouse brains, and then set out to study the cells. The work was made possible by a multidisciplinary collaboration between bench scientists, bioinformaticians and clinicians.
The team used a variety of molecular and biochemical tests — performed within hours of the cells being collected — to characterize which genes are turned on and off in microglia, how the DNA is marked up by regulatory molecules, and how these patterns change when the cells are cultured.
Microglia, they found, have hundreds of genes that are more highly expressed than other types of macrophages, as well as distinct patterns of gene expression compared to other types of brain cells. After the cells were cultured, however, the gene patterns of the microglia began to change. Within just six hours, more than 2,000 genes had their expression turned down by at least fourfold. The results underscore how dependent microglia are on their surroundings in the brain, and why researchers have struggled to culture them.

Next, the researchers analyzed whether any of the genes that were upregulated in microglia compared to other cells had been previously implicated in disease. Genes linked to a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, they found, were highly expressed in microglia.
“A really high proportion of genes linked to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s and schizophrenia are much more highly expressed in microglia than the rest of the brain,” says Coufal. “That suggests there’s some kind of link between microglia and the diseases.”

For Alzheimer’s, more than half of the genes known to affect a person’s risk of developing the disease were expressed more highly in microglia than other brain cells.
In mice, however, many of the disease genes weren’t as highly expressed in microglia. “That tells us that maybe mice aren’t the best model organisms for some of these diseases,” Coufal says.
More work is needed to understand exactly how microglia may be altered in people with diseases, but the new molecular profile of microglia offers a way for researchers to begin trying to better culture the cells, or coax stem cells to develop into microglia for future studies.